Category Archives: Chromebook

Howto: Setup Arduino on Chromebook


Arduino is an interesting microcontroller platform / board that arguably launched the era of low cost, standalone microcontroller systems. At this time, there are a multitude of these devices in the $50 less price range – but the Arduino was one of the first.


The Arduino is an 8 bit microcontroller with a USB interface, a GPIO interface, A/D and D/A converters, I2C interfaces, and UART(s). More importantly, it has a free and easy to use IDE that supports C coding for the device. The Arduino Uno runs about $25 (at this time) from a number of sources – AdaFruit or Sparkfun (for example).

In any case, this post will (hopefully) be relatively short and provide a proof of concept that the Arduino system can be installed and function on the Chromebook 14.

Dependencies / Assumptions / Caveats

This install requires that:

  1. The target Chromebook 14 is in developer mode.
  2. It has an SD card of at least 8GB to support the installation of a crouton chroot Ubuntu install.
  3. A fairly recent version of Ubuntu installed to a crouton chroot jail – for details refer to my post on installing an Android Development Environment.
  4. Java JDK installed and functioning. Once again – refer back to the Android Development Environment post.
  5. An Arduino device to test with.

Note: All of the instructions below are based on name of my user (joeuser), the name of my SD-Card (chrome-32), and particular versions of the install packages. You will need to modify for your respective names / versions.

Hardware – Arduino / USB Interface

My biggest concern with Arduino on the Chromebook is whether the Arduino Uno (my test board) will be recognized / configured correctly by ChromeOS – since there is a real risk that the appropriate kernel drivers may not be included on ChromeOS. Our chroot Ubuntu jail still uses / depends completely on ChromeOS for the kernel, kernel drivers and /dev.

So the first thing we are going to do is see what the ChromeOS kernel messages are when we hotplug the Arduino Uno into the Chromebook. Taking a look at the before by opening a crosh window <ctrl-alt-t>, followed by:


Produces a screen full of device messages. Interestingly the last message indicates that  a GSM modem is mapped to ttyUSB0 – information that may be useful in the future. In any case, if we plug in the Arduino Uno to a USB interface on the Chromebook and run ‘dmesg’ again (looking specifically for new messages), we get the following information.

[12028.022309] usb 1-1: new full-speed USB device number 39 using xhci_hcd
[12028.035738] usb 1-1: New USB device found, idVendor=2341, idProduct=0001
[12028.035752] usb 1-1: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=220
[12028.035763] usb 1-1: Product: Arduino Uno
[12028.035771] usb 1-1: Manufacturer: Arduino (
[12028.035779] usb 1-1: SerialNumber: 649323436383514051E1
[12028.035970] usb 1-1: ep 0x82 - rounding interval to 1024 microframes, ep desc says 2040 microframes
[12028.036424] cdc_acm 1-1:1.0: ttyACM0: USB ACM device

Which provides us with a couple of useful datapoints. Specifically, that the device is recognized as an Arduino Uno, and that it is mapped to ‘ttyACM0’ – implying that it is recognized and likely supported by kernel driver.

The next thing we want to look at is is what it looks like in /dev – which is where the tty devices are mapped. In order for this interface to function correctly, the devices needs to readable / writeable from the Arduino IDE, and that will be installed on an crouton chroot Ubuntu install. So – to be more specific, we need to see what the ‘/dev/ttyACM0’ device looks like from inside of Ubuntu on the Chromebook – ownership and permissions. Start the Ubuntu install, switch to that interface (VT3) and open a terminal window. Inside that window, enter:

cd /dev
ls -al tty*

And this produces a listing in which the line of interest looks something like:

crw-rw---- 1 root serial 166,  0 Nov 26 05:37 ttyACM0

Note that the line containing ttyACM0 has permissions set to 660 and is owned by group ‘serial’. Most significantly, it is not world readable/writable. This will matter later when we need to access it from the Arduino IDE (Interactive Development Environment).

Software – Installing the Arduino IDE

There are multiple options for installing the Arduino IDE on Ubuntu. The easiest is launch the Ubuntu Software Center (or Synaptic)  from inside the Ubuntu system, search for Arduino and install. The only real issue with this is that the version in the Ubuntu respository is usually a few versions behind the most current version at the Arduino homepage. My suggestion is to try the version in the Ubuntu repository, see if it works (or doesn’t), and then evaluate the differences between the installed version and the most current version. If the updated features are critical to your needs, download and install the current version from the Arduino homepage – and follow the instructions for Ubuntu install.

After the install has completed, start start the Arduino IDE. I dialog box will popup indicating that the current user is not part of the ‘dialout’ group.   This can be remedied by closing the Arduino IDE, opening a terminal window and entering:

sudo usermod -a -G dialout joeuser 
sudo usermod -a -G serial joeuser

Which of course is based on my default username ‘joeuser’ – adapt to your match your configuration. Note that we added our user to two groups. The reason for this is a bit complicated, but it is important that the second group is the same as the groupname associated with /dev/ttyACM0 (from above).

After this is completed, you can restart the Arduino IDE and connect the Arduino to Chromebook. Under the settings menu, serial device you will find ‘/dev/ACM0’ is now enabled.


If you pull up the demo sketch for blink, compile and install – and it should work. However we still have one more open issue that needs to be wrapped up.

One Dangling Detail – Fixing udevd

Our dangling detail is the fact that the Arduino IDE install created some association between the Arduino serial port (/dev/ttyACM0) and the dialout group as part of the install – but it is not working quite as expected. We can verify this by repeating the following:

cd /dev
ls -al tty*

Which produces the same information we have above with our /dev/ttyACM0 port in the serial group – not the dialout group. Now if we do this (from inside an Ubuntu Terminal):

sudo udevd --daemon
{disconnect / reconnect the Arduino Uno}
cd /dev
ls -al tty*

This produces a slightly different listing of which the line of interest will look something like:

crw-rw---- 1 root dialout 166,  0 Nov 26 05:37 ttyACM0

Which now shows that this device interface is associated with the dialout group. The reason for this is that the udevd daemon is a service that manages device configuration on most modern Linux systems. ChromeOS does not use udevd or even have it installed – for security reasons. The Arduino IDE creates some udevd rules (in the Ubuntu Chroot system) that map Arduino devices to the dialout group – but since the udevd daemon is not running in this crouton install – the rules are not applied until we manually started the daemon. We could manually start this each time we run our Ubuntu install, but the more correct and complete solution is add to udevd to the startup apps in ‘/etc/rc.local’. In Ubuntu, open a terminal and do the following:

sudo gedit /etc/rc.local

On the line before ‘exit 0’, add a new line with the following:

sudo udevd --daemon

Save and exit. What this does is, every time you boot your Ubuntu install, the udevd daemon will start – and all of the udev rules will be implemented. You can reboot, plug in the Arduino and confirm that it maps to the dialout group.


This is a  slightly messy install – since we had to get the udevd daemon started, and that would not be typical for an install. But overall this is nothing too far off the beaten path of Linux installations and maybe we learned something new in the process.

Update : 2013 Jan 27

The Cortado – Arduino compatible, Bluetooth programmable, onboard sensors, and long battery life. The Chromebook also has Bluetooth and it could likely function as a dev platform, and I would really like to try this on for size. The up to 100ft range and meshed networking – makes this a potential in the IoT space. [twolf]

Howto: Android Development on Chromebook


One the primary reasons I got the Chromebook was to support a broad range of development options on a Linux platform. The risk is that since it is a Chromebook, it is most definitely not a general purpose Linux environment – and some things may not be practical. Even inside a chroot jail, there are weirdnesses since it inherits the kernel and devices from the platform OS – ChromeOS.

In any case the following is a process I developed to implement an Android application development environment. There are many equally valid solutions, and perhaps better solutions, but this is a working / tested example of how to get from point A to point B.


Since the base platform I am using is a Chromebook 14 – with a x86 Haswell (64bit), Intel binaries will work fine – making life a quite a bit simpler. Unfortunately, it is not possible to install anything like Eclipse or Debian packages directly to the ChromeOS since the developers have (purposefully) not included most of the traditional shared libraries used in Linux. This minimalist approach to the ChromeOS means that it has a minimal attack surface for malware, but minimal opportunity for us to hack the OS.  As a point of trivia, ChromeOS appears to be based on a Gentoo build model – but it has been scrubbed clean of anything extraneous to the ChromeOS function.

However, since we are lucky enough to have a relatively polished / low pain solution to installing a chroot jail version of Ubuntu – Crouton, our system level approach will be:

  1. Switch the Chromebook to developer mode
  2. Install a Crouton based chroot jail version of Ubuntu on the SD-Card
  3. Install Oracle Java in the chroot jail (along with all of the rest of the pieces)
  4. Install BitTorrent sync to create a shared workspace for Android Studio
  5. Install adb and fastboot and verify operation with an Android device.
  6. Install Android Studio / test with Android device.

Note: All of the instructions below are based on name of my user (joeuser), the name of my SD-Card (chrome-32), and particular versions of the install packages. You will need to modify for your respective names / versions.

Step 1 – Developer Mode

Developer mode is a way to unlock your Chromebook a bit. Of course it is much less secure than the default ChromeOS mode, and setting developer mode means everything on the platform is erased – except the SD-Card . Additionally, switching it back to default mode will also clear everything (again). So any files you want to be persistent should be stored up in the Google drive or on the SD card. After you have mentally prepared yourself for that, take a shot at developer mode – it really is much more interesting than lockdown mode. The details are on my Chromebook Cookbook page. While you are there, spend some time and figure out how to switch between virtual terminals and set the password for ‘chronos’.

Step 2 – Ubuntu on Crouton Chroot

The default Crouton install installs the Crouton tools in /usr/local/bin and the chroot jail in /usr/local/chroots. With a 16GB internal hard drive, it is not practical to risk using most/all of the available local space for a chroot jail – so we should plan to store it off to the SD-Card. There are two basic approaches we can use to accomplish this. The first is to use command line arguments with the Crouton tools to point it at /media/removable/chrome-32 (which happens to be the name of my card). Another option is to symbolically map these directories to corresponding directories on the SD-Card. The first approach means that every time the crouton scripts are used, the command line arguments are needed, and the second approach means it is done one time up front (I recommend the second approach as the less stupid approach).

Open a chrosh (chrome shell – ctl-alt-t), and enter (with corrections for your sd-card name):

cd /media/removable/chrome-32
sudo mkdir bin chroots
cd /usr/opt
sudo ln -s /media/removable/chrome-32/bin/ bin
sudo ln -s /media/removable/chrome-32/chroots/ chroots
ls -al

The last instruction should show the local directories with the symbolic mapping to the sd-card locations. This ensures that both the crouton tools and the chroot jail is installed to the SD-Card enabling a much easier restore if you somehow clear your system (it happens to me at least once a week).

FYI – If that happens, the Crouton install can be restored by recreating the symbolic links above. That’s it.

From here install a crouton chroot jail ubuntu with the following:

sudo sh -e ~/Downloads/crouton -r raring -t unity
sudo startunity

Note that in most cases I recommend Precise due to its stability, but in this case I went with Raring since it has support for ADB and Fastboot in the Ubuntu repository (and Precise does not). From inside the Ubuntu install, open a terminal and enter:

sudo apt-get install ubuntu-standard
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-desktop
sudo apt-get install ia32-libs
sudo apt-get install synaptic

Shutdown the Ubuntu chroot jail. You now have a fairly complete and clean Ubuntu Raring install, and this would be a good point to make a backup. Instructions are on the Crouton Cookbook page. Once again – when the backup is done, move it to Google Drive or the SD-Card for safekeeping.

Step 3 – Install Oracle Java

From the ChromeOS interface (VT1), you can download the  Java 7 JDK for 64 bit Linux – grab the tar.gz package from Oracle (not the RPM). It will download into the Downloads directory, which incidentally is mapped to the Downloads directory inside the Crouton chroot jail.

After the download is complete, switch over the Ubuntu interface on VT3, open a file manager and copy the Java 7 tar.gz package from Downloads to the home directory. Right click and extract. It should create a directory name something like ‘jdk1.7.0_45’ in the home directory. Open an editor and open ‘.bashrc’ and append the following:


This will make it easier for *some* apps to find the JDK. The JDK tar.gz file in the homedir can safely be deleted after this is done.

Step 4 – BitTorrent Sync

On the ChromeOS interface (VT1) download the Linux/64bit install package for BitTorrent Sync from Open a terminal with <ctrl-alt-T> and enter:

cd /media/removable/chrome-32
sudu mkdir btsync
sudo chmod 777 btsync
cd btsync
mkdir android-studio

This creates a target sync directory that is readable / writable / executable to everybody for syncing. We will use it later.

When the download is complete, copy the tgz file to the user home directory(from the Ubuntu interface) . Extract the files in the home directory. This will create a directory that looks like ‘~/btsync_glibc23_x65’. On the Unity Desktop, click on the gear in the upper right corner and select ‘Startup Applications’. Under Command, browse to the btsync directory and select the ‘btsync’ app. The will configure the app to startup when the chroot is started – similar enough to a service for our purposes. After this is done, the tgz file in the homedir can also be deleted.

Start the app by double clicking from the file manager or reboot the chroot jail to force the app startup (and validate that it is configured correctly). On either the ChromeOS or Ubuntu interface, open a browser with URL ‘localhost:8888/gui’ to confirm that Bit Torrent sync is running. Configure according to directions – using the ‘bysync’ directory (on the SD-Card) we created above as the target. You will also want to create another endpoint to this share on a desktop, server, or other laptop to ensure your data is offloaded from your Chromebook.

Step 5 – ADB and Fastboot

ADB and Fastboot are really a make or break part of effectively using the Chromebook for Android development. Note that in Precise, the adb and fastboot packages need to be retrieved manually from the Debian repository. For details refer to the Ubuntu Cookbook page. In Raring, we can use the easier method shown below.

From the chroot Ubuntu interface on VT3, and open a terminal. Enter the following:

sudo apt-get install android-tools-adb
sudo apt-get install android-tools-fastboot
adb version
fastboot help

The last two lines confirm that both adb and fastboot are operational. The true test is to now plug in an Android test device and enter (this may take a couple of tries):

adb devices

If everything if functional the adb server should start and the attached device will be identified. Note that if the Android device is reasonably current, it will require onscreen approval before it connects to adb.

Step 6 – Android Studio

The last piece in this puzzle is Android Studio. From the ChromeOS interface, download the Linux/64bit install package from

From the chroot jail (VT3) open a file manager and copy the Android Studio tgz file to the user home directory. Right click on the file and extract the files in the home directory. This will create a directory that looks like ‘~/android-studio’ with an ‘bin’ subdirectory. Once again, after this is complete the tgz file in the homedir can be deleted.

In order to make the launch script easier to find, we will put it on the PATH system variable. In the user home directory, edit ‘.bashrc’ and append the following:


In some cases, I discovered that the launch script did not seem to be picking up on the .bashrc updates, so it was necessary to define the JDK_HOME more explicitly. Use your favorite editor to open ‘~/andoid-studio/bin/’. Right below the ‘#!/bin/sh’ line add the following:


Open a terminal and enter ‘’ to confirm that Android Studio was found and executed. If / when prompted, select the directory for the Oracle Java JDK. Android Studio should launch.

As a test we are going to create a new project (mostly with the defaults), except for project location. For the location, navigate to ‘media/removable/chrome-32/btsync/android-studio’. This will put the project files in the sync directory, which will then synchronize the project to your others systems on share. This is all part of that concept that everything should be stored in some “cloud” or at least off device.

At the project screen, create a new project and when it comes up on the screen, click the green arrow button at the top of the screen. The connected Android device should show up as an option, select it and go. Alternatively, you can create an emulator and use it. The app should install, run and show ‘Hello World’ on the interface.

Version Note: As part of my testing, I noticed that my initial version of Android Studio had functioning menu drop downs, but after I updated to the current version (0.32) the menus would no longer drop down. I confirmed this with both Precise and Raring on Unity. It may be worth testing Gnome as some point, or it may be fixed in some upcoming update to Android Studio. Overall – it did not prevent me from doing most activities since the control bar was fully functional.

Lastly – go to another node on your BitTorrent Sync share and confirm that the project was created and migrated to that system.

Wrapup / Notes

Overall the Android Studio IDE is fairly functional and well structured. I was able to test on both an external device and the emulator without any issues.  From a practical perspective, I am actually surprised at how easily this came together on a Chromebook. As far as the menu issues, this appears to be an Android Studio / Unity issue which could be resolved by using Eclipse/Android ADT tools or switching to a different window manager.

In Summary – This Chromebook Android Environment provides me with a very slick and portable Android Development environment without a lot of compromises.

Chromebook 14: First Impressions


I have been looking to get  a laptop like machine to use as a hackery system. Something I could take with me on travel, and something I could mess up on a regular basis without disrupting my work / personal system. I started with the classic list of laptop criteria: fast, light, thin, cheap with good battery life. Since it was a hackery system, there were a few other requirements. It did not need a CD/DVD and a quick recovery system would be a good thing, and expandability for futureproofing would be good. Yeah right. Since most of us can’t have everything we want, I had to shortlist this to critical items. Most importantly, I needed something I could easily slip in my pack with my primary laptop, had a decent sized screen, and was cheap.

I considered a number of options, and ended up picking a 14 inch HP Chromebook. I really don’t  understand why the exclusive retailer is Walmart, but the package is interesting. It includes:

  • The Chromebook / 4GB RAM / 9 hours of battery life / Haswell processor
  • 100 GB of Google Drive storage for 2 years ~ $5 x 24 (retail)
  • 200 MB of T-Mobile 3g monthly access for 2 years ~ $5 x 24 (guesstimate)
  • 12 Gogo Flight Internet passes ~ $14 x 12 (retail)

At retail, these individual items total up to about $408 + Chromebook (with a retail package cost of $350), and if we assume between bulk discounts and subsidies the add-ons are probably worth about half that, this puts the effective cost of the Chromebook alone at about $150. For that price, it is the best cheap / thin / big screen laptop to fit my needs.

First Impressions

ChromeOS is more than a browser. The user interface is Chrome Browser on top of a Chrome-like window manager on top of a Linux base OS. The factory default mode has no privileged access (root disabled), but full functionality can  be enabled with ‘developer mode’. As far as running a more traditional Linux install, there is a very interesting chroot solution called ‘crouton‘. More on that in a later post. One of the cool features I discovered is that by switching from developer > factory > developer modes I reset the entire OS to default configuration in about 20 minutes from an internal image – which makes for a very fast / low overhead feature for useful hackery.

Overall – I am still not ready to give up my primary / full function laptop, but this is probably the best value in a laptop I have ever bought.